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Instrument Abbreviations

The instrumentation for each work is given in the form of figures and abbreviations in the usual orchestral ordering of woodwind - brass - timpani - percussion - harp - other keyboard/plucked string instruments - strings.

Brackets within the listings indicate alternatives in number or instrument. Brackets with an equals sign indicate that the preceding instrument(s) doubles, eg. fl(=picc) means that the flute also doubles piccolo. Brackets with a Roman numeral and an equals sign specify exactly which player doubles, eg. 2 fl(II=picc) means that the second player only is doubling piccolo.

Numerals listed after strings specify a preferred, but not usually obligatory, string strength (indicated as players, not desks). A numeral in brackets listed after perc indicates the number of percussion players required.

The following information:

3(II+III=picc) .2(II=cbsn).cbsn


3 flutes (2nd & 3rd doubling piccolo).2 oboes.cor anglais.3 clarinets (2nd doubling Eb clarinet, 3rd doubling Eb clarinet and bass clarinet), 2 bassoons (2nd doubling contra bassoon) and a contra bassoon.



picc : piccolo
fl : flute
afl : alto flute
bfl : bass flute
ob : oboe
bob : bass oboe
ca : cor anglais
acl : alto clarinet
Ebcl : clarinet (Eb)
cl : clarinet
bcl : bass clarinet
cbcl : contra bass clarinet
bsn : bassoon
cbsn : contra bassoon
ssax : soprano saxophone
asax : alto saxophone
tsax : tenor saxophone
bsax : baritone saxophone


hn : horn : flugel horn
ptpt : piccolo trumpet (Bb)
tpt : trumpet
trbn : trombone
btrbn : bass trombone
scrt : soprano cornet
crts : cornets
rcrt : repiano cornet
btuba : bass tuba
euph : euphonium
bar : baritone


ant.cym : antique cymbals
BD : bass drum
c.bell : cow bell
cast : castanets : chinese block
chic.cym : chic cymbal
ch.dr : chinese drum : chinese temple block
chimes : wooden chimes : chime bars
crot : crotales
cyms : pair of cymbals
glsp : glockenspiel
mcas : maracas
mar : marimba : metal block
mil.glsp : military glockenspiel
riv.cym : rivet cymbal
SD : side drum
siz.cym : sizzle cymbal
susp.cym : suspended cymbal
t.bells : tubular bells : tambour militaire
tab : tabor
tam-t : tam-tam
tamb : tambourine
TD tenor : drum
tgl : triangle
timb : timbales : temple blocks
vib : vibraphone
wdbl : wood block
xyl : xylophone
xylrim : xylorimba


vln : violin
vla : viola
vlc : cello
db : bass


pno : piano
cel : celesta
synth : synthesizer


gtr : guitar
bgtr : bass guitar

All other instrument names are given in full.

The Book of Ingenious Devices

Description fo solo piano and orchestra
Publisher Cadenza Music
Category Orchestral
Date 2016
Duration 00:21:00
Orchestration 3perc. timp. hp. solo pf.
Audio Extract
Over the past fifteen years or so I've got to know and admire Huw Watkins as a pianist through numerous chamber performances he's given of mine and many other composers music and I started thinking about writing him a concerto several years ago. The Book of Ingenious Devices was written with his musical personality and formidable ability very much in mind and one of the starting points was thinking about the solo piano in a chamber music context and how it might interact with smaller ensembles from within the orchestra. The concerto lasts around 21 minutes and is heard in a single span that falls into five distinct movements. The first of these is a virtuosic moto perpetuo with the piano at the centre punctuated by different instrumental combinations within the orchestra. The second, shorter movement is much slower and sustained with more expansive material for the soloist which ends leaving the piano alone with a high two part florid figure that quickly descends into short fanfares for brass and a brief return to faster music that quickly winds down, running out of energy before silence and the midway point of the concerto. The fourth movement begins with repeated single notes on the piano which slowly open out into more lyrical material around icy, static chords in the strings and ticking woodwind. Solo harp and timpani gently echo the piano leading to low clusters and trilling drums. Momentum picks up in the three percussion and the fifth and final movement slowly gains pace, re-establishing the momentum of the first movement.
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